Awns: A stiff bristle-like projection (on a grass),
usually at the tip of an organ.
Bat detector: Electronic instrument used to detect
high frequency bat calls and convert to audible frequency
Branchlets: the smallest, outermost branches of
a woody species.
Call count surveys or monitoring: Listening for
bird calls to detect presence or to obtain a standardised
index of populations. Commonly undertaken for kiwi
- generally from wide vantage points for the first
two hours after dark in calm weather during the dark
phase of the moon in May-June. Also used for bittern.
Calyx: the outer, usually green or brown flower
parts which protect the developing inner flower parts
Capsules: A dry fruit which splits to release the
Corm: A short swollen underground plant stem that
serves as an organ of propagation.
Corridor: Vegetation used by biota for dispersal
or refuges. Particularly important during and following
harvesting when weak dispersers (e.g. lizards, some
bird species) are more dependent on riparian corridors
(e.g. stream edges, gullies) to get access to alternative
habitat. Provide key linkages to other habitats.
Diurnal: Active during daylight hours.
Divaricating: Form of a plant. Spreading at a very
wide angle, used especially for shrubs with stiff,
wide-angled, more or less intertangled branching.
Eutrophication: Excessive nutrient inflows into
streams, wetlands, and lakes (from fertilisers and
other chemicals, animal waste, septic tanks), causing
algal growth, a decrease in oxygen, and other negative
Fenn traps: A kill trap, used for small mammals
such as stoats.
Hermaphroditic: Bisexual, as in many invertebrates.
Inflorescence: Plant part – a floral system consisting
of more than one flower.
Integrated Pest Control: A pest control programme
that uses a range of techniques and timings of application
to protect and enhance a suite of habitats and/or
Leaf axils: The upper angle between the leaf stalk
and the stem.
Mustelid: Ferret, stoat or weasel. Members of the
mustelid family, introduced to New Zealand.
Nocturnal: Active at night.
Omnivorous: Feeding on a variety of foods, including
plant and animal material.
Prostrate: Lying on or along the ground.
Pulsed poisoning: Targeted poisoning of a pest or
a suite of pests at a sensitive time of the year
(e.g. breeding season) to maximise benefits to sensitive
indigenous biota, e.g. kereru, kaka. Pulse treatments
and removal of unused baits also minimises the risk
of potential non-target impacts of toxins.
Residual trap catch index (RTC): An index of abundance
of a pest species (e.g. possum, black rat) as measured
by numbers of animals caught per 100 trap nights
(e.g. 50 traps operated for two nights or, more usually,
100 traps for one night). Often related to a tracking
index for rodents where rodents are tracked by footprints
left on sensitive tracking paper in a tunnel.
Riparian: Vegetation along the edge of a wetland
or stream, often heavily utilised by resident or
Spike: An unbranched, elongated inflorescence of
Spikelets: A shorter spike. There may be more than
Tree banding: Wrapping sheet metal around a tree
or trees (c.f. power poles) to prevent access by
predators climbing to nests.
Virkon: A viruncidal/fungicidal disinfectant.